Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Warning: Missional Is Messy

            The solution to the “great omission” lies in moving from in-reach to outreach.[1]  It means shifting into ‘go-mission,’ breaking out of the ecclesial ghetto and taking the initiative to go to “the neighbor.” This go-mission requires overcoming initial inertia.  And going is messy.

            The church must go to others for they will not automatically come to the church, meeting on the church's turf, on the church's terms.[2]  It is the church's responsibility to penetrate people in the spheres of the market- place, neighborhoods, universities, arts, and government.  God calls the church not merely to gather but to scatter, exiting the building and taking the initiative to go and meet sojourners (not-yet Christians) where they are and engage them in meaningful conversations.  Like a football team that breaks from its huddle, the church must break from its "holy huddle" to carry out its mission.   Charles Colson states:

We must take the church to the people.  Too often we sit in church as spectators, waiting for the needy multitudes to come watch the show with us.  But for those in need—spiritually and physically—a fat, lethargic church preoccupied with its own entertainment holds no appeal.  Jesus didn't set up counseling hours in the Temple; He went into the homes of the most notorious sinners, to the places where the lame, the beggars, the needy could be found.[3]

         This "go-mission" calls us to leave our comfort zones and enter various spheres of influence.  Taking the initiative demands that we move from “the calm of the pew” into “the messiness” of people’s lives.  And so we say with C. T. Studd: “Some want to live within the sound of church or chapel bell; I want to run a rescue shop, within a yard of hell.”  And going is messy.

            The great commission will not be accomplished by timid action, or by waiting passively for it to happen.  The church must be on the offensive but this does not mean that the church is to be offensive.  Rather, we reach out intentionally and tactfully to those who do not know God.  Boldness and gentleness are not mutually exclusive. As John Stott said, "We carry out mission in Christ’s way."[4]

            For us, the most receptive groups to engage are found within our spheres of influence.  These comprise our everyday spaces— neighborhood, workplace, and third places. For a local church, the most receptive population to engage is its collective sphere of relationships.  In order to do this, however, the church must provide encouragement and opportunities for believers to build relationships with those in their sphere of influence.  It becomes counter-productive to over-program, expecting believers to attend several services and meetings each week to the neglect of reaching out to others.

            Rather, believers should be encouraged to attend a worship service, a small group or missional community, and service opportunity, with the balance of time given to activities such as entertaining neighbors, exercising at a health club, volunteering at a hospital, coaching a soccer team, helping with a reading program, or participating in a local civic group.  As we respond to the "go-mission," depart our comfort zones, and serve "the neighbor," a warning is in order: missional is messy!


     [1]George Barna, User Friendly Churches (Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1991), 46.
     [2]Delos Miles, Master Principles of Evangelism (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1982), 15,
     [3]Charles Colson, Who Speaks for God?  Confronting the World with Real Christianity (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1985), 96.
     [4] John R. Stott, “A Note about the Stuttgart Statement on Evangelism” in Proclaiming Christ in Christ's Way: Studies in Integral Mission, Vinay Samuel, Albrecht Hauser, eds. (Oxford : Regnum Books, 1989), 208.

Monday, December 22, 2014

The Great Omission of the Ingrown, Apathetic, Stagnate, and Cynical Church

            The temptation of the church is mission drift, namely, to drift away from the mission to make disciples (Matt. 28:18-20).  The result is the great o-mission.[1]  The church “fulfills the great o-mission” as it turns inward, loses sight of its purpose, becomes accustomed to the status quo, and lives in disobedience to Jesus' command to make disciples of all nations. [2]

This omission comes as a result of inward self-concern rather than a concern for "the other," those who live outside of faith in Christ.  The church focuses primarily on itself, its needs, and agendas.  It exhibits an exclusive attitude, being spiritually smug, distancing itself from contact with people who are far from God.  It consequently becomes ingrown, apathetic, stagnate, and cynical.  It suffers from the ecclesial illness known as "koinonitus" (from the Greek word koinonia, meaning fellowship), an imbalance of too much Christian fellowship to the neglect of mission to others.[3]  This tendency toward exclusive friendships, activities, and church programs which are inward-focused is dangerous to the health of the church and a denial of its mission to the world.

          The church's omission may not be an oversight but a lack of insight as to what God wants to do in the world.  The church does not see the world as God sees it, from his divine perspective.  Hence, there is no burden for sojourners who live outside the family of God.  A local church may be cordial to those who darken its doors and join for worship but it does not actively reach out to others within its sphere of relationships, its extended oikos (household).  With such a lack of insight, such Christians becomes "keepers of the aquarium" meeting solely for the sake of the redeemed rather than engaging equally in redemptive relationships, participating with Jesus in fishing for men, (Matt. 4:19).[4]

          The goal of the church in this case quickly shifts to maintenance of the status quo.  Services are conducted, programs are maintained, and ministries are continued entirely for the benefit of believers-- “servicing the saints.”  In the course of events, the church develops a fortress mentality, focused mainly upon those within its walls, rather than on those outside.  Its purpose becomes preservation of the organization, its history, traditions, structure and facility.  Any mission that occurs is done to perpetuate and maintain the institution, not to redeem individuals, the community, or the world.

          The church's omission may be directly related to disobedience to the commands of Jesus.  The church understands the need to make disciples but does not act upon it, thereby proving itself irresponsible and disobedient to the great commission, resulting in what John Howard Yoder calls apostasy.[5]  Rather than reaping as workers in the harvest, Christians are more like "field residents," solely living among the crops (and perhaps squandering resources on themselves) but not laboring in the harvest.[6]  It is the church's preoccupation with itself that leads to the lack of obedience and measly results, if there are any results at all.

          This sad state of affairs is all too common in the post-Christendom church today.  Pastors and church leaders remain comfortable shepherding the flock, and justify this omission by all the "good things" that make up a busy schedule.[7]  When this is the case among leadership, little evangelism can be expected among the people.  Such a state of affairs results in "fulfilling the great o-mission."

          Unless Christ-followers take the initiative to reach out to people, and engage in redemptive relationships, the church will continue to diminish in number and influence within our post-Christian context.  To remain in a "holy huddle," sitting back, wishing and praying, but never moving out as “sent ones” to make disciples is disobedience to the mandates to “make disciples of all nations” (Matt. 28:19) and to “love neighbor as self,” (Matt. 22:39).

[1] Dallas Willard, The Great Omission: Reclaiming Jesus's Essential Teachings on Discipleship (New York: Harper One, 2014).
[2] Robertson McQuilkin, The Great Omission (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1984), 83.
[3]C. Peter Wagner, Your Church Can Be Healthy (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1979), 78.
[4]Donald McGavran and George G. Hunter III, Church Growth Strategies That Work (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1980), 27.
[5] John Howard Yoder, Theology of Mission: A Believers Church Perspective (Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2014), 185-192.
[6]Bill Hull, The Disciple-Making Church (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1990), 46.
[7]C. John Miller, Outgrowing the Ingrown Church (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), 34-35.

Wednesday, December 17, 2014

Deo praeveniri (God's Initiative)

     Initiative is discovered in the character of God.  He is the almighty and merciful initiator revealed in the Scriptures.[1]  He took the initiative to create the world.  He took the initiative to create man in order to have fellowship with him.  He took the initiative to search for rebellious man, calling to him in the garden, "Where are you," (Gen. 3:9)?  He took the initiative to reconcile the human race to himself, so that those who receive his provision for sin will "reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ," (Rom. 5:17).  Indeed, every major act of God is an initial move--searching for, reaching out and saving humankind all for the love of his creation.

            This divine initiative (Deo praeveniri) is necessary in order for "created-good-but-sin-infected" humanity to return to a right standing before a holy God.  The hope of the human race is not in itself, nor in its tainted goodness, but in God who according to his great mercy rescues human beings from a desperate and despairing state.  It is his initiative, not humanity's that brings salvation to men, women, and children on earth.[2]

            The initiative of God is seen in his identification with the human race.  This is observed chiefly in the incarnation, "the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us," (John 1:14).  The incarnation was the invasion into human life by God himself, entering into time, space and history, identifying with his creation through his Son Jesus Christ.  The Scriptures state:

Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness.  And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself and became obedient to death—even death on a cross, (Phil. 2:6-8)!

            The initiative of God is also seen in his calling and sending activity.  In biblical history, he sent chosen men and women to carry out his will to proclaim his truth.  He sent his Son Jesus Christ and his Holy Spirit into the world.  Jesus likewise sent his disciples to carry on the initiating activity of reaching out to people with the message of his incarnation, crucifixion, resurrection, and restoration of all things. 

            The Great Commission with Jesus Christ is a mission of initiative (Matt. 28:18-20).  It originates in the will of the Father, is revealed and affirmed in the life of his Son, and is carried out through the church in the power of the Holy Spirit.  Since God has initiated a relationship with human beings, his people are called in like manner to initiate relationships with others, based upon his initiative and love for humankind.[3]  His people are sent to the ends of the earth, to the end of time, always on the move to fulfill the Great Commission ... a mission with Christ.

            The church participates in this search and rescue mission, like "the Son of Man" who "came to seek and to save what was lost," (Luke 19:10).  This is a ministry of reconciliation given to all who have been initiated into God's family through faith in his Son.

All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation: that God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting men's sins against them.  And he has committed to us the message of reconciliation.  We are therefore Christ's ambassadors, as though God were making his appeal through us, (2 Cor. 5:18-20).

Since God has chosen to use his people to make disciples, the Great Commission is truly a co-mission.  He forms a partnership with all believers, "God's fellow workers," (1 Cor. 3:9).  These partners in the Great Commission are instrumental in God accomplishing his purposes on earth, building his kingdom here as in heaven.  He employs his people as his agents, engaging in redemptive relationships, under the direction of his Spirit.

            Thus, each Christian has a responsibility to reach out within his or her sphere of influence.  Every disciple is to take the initiative to be a witness for Jesus Christ, participating in the Great Commission in his or her niche in the world.  This includes reaching out to family, friends, neighbors, associates and acquaintances.  It also includes reaching out to people beyond the borders of existing relationships.  Christ-followers are to be his "witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth," (Acts 1:8).

            Every local church also assumes a particular responsibility to reach out to its sphere of influence.  This sphere is the sum total of each of its members' spheres of influence, plus all those who are influenced by the church's corporate witness in the community and region.  The desired effect is synergism, namely, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.  A church's corporate sphere of influence represents a population of people several times larger than the church itself.  Every local church has the responsibility to take the initiative to be a witness for Christ to its Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria and to ends of the earth.

     [1]George W. Peters, A Theology of Church Growth (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 97.

     [2]Roger E. Hedlund, The Mission of the Church in the World: A Biblical Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1985), 25.

     [3]Charles Van Engen, God's Missionary People: Rethinking the Purpose of the Local Church (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1990), 80.

Monday, June 16, 2014

Is the 'apostolic church' missional? part 6

As discussed earlier, Jesus Christ is the first apostle, the ultimate apostle, and source of all apostleship (Heb. 3:1).  The twelve apostles were foundational to the church, unique in their office, and represented the new covenant of Jesus Christ to the world.  Paul, Barnabas, James, Apollos, and others beyond the original twelve were apostles as well, demonstrated not only by their apostolic teaching but by their apostolic witness “in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth” (Acts 1:8).

Paul’s words to Timothy communicated the pattern of continuity and connection with the apostles to future generations when he said: “And the things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust to reliable people who will also be qualified to teach others.” (2 Tim. 2:2) These words were put into practice in the first centuries as seen in Tertullian’s description in De Praescriptione Haereticorum when he offers examples of church fathers that stood in historic connection and doctrinal continuity with the original twelve apostles. Interestingly, Tertullian not only mentioned the first-century apostles, but spoke in addition of “apostolic men” (apostolicis uiris), namely, those “who continued steadfast with the apostles.”[1]

While the church or household of God is “built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone” (Eph. 2:20), the apostolic nature and mission of the church continued throughout history.  As the Nicene Creed states, we believe in the “one, holy, catholic and apostolic church.”  This confession applied to the fourth century church as well as the first. To borrow Tertullian’s phrase, there have been “apostolic men” (apostolicis uiris) who have “continued steadfast with the apostles.”  As stated earlier, this is not merely in origin and doctrine, but in mission, character, and life in the Spirit. Such “apostolic men” functioned on the order of the twelve apostles of Jesus, even though they did not necessarily fill an office unique to or like that of the original twelve.

Such apostles or apostolic men, gifted by God, were often sent or commissioned with authority to extend the church to some region or segment of society which previously was without a viable witness to the gospel.  They were described as apostles because of their pioneering and ground-breaking work to establish churches where no or few Christian communities existed.

While the list of the “Apostles of the Seventy” is rooted in church tradition, it illustrates the idea that there were apostles beyond the original twelve. For example, Hippolytus of Rome (170-236), a disciple of Irenaeus who was a disciple of Polycarp who was a disciple of the Evangelist and Apostle John, produced an early list of seventy apostles.[2]  In The Ochtoechos, John of Damascus confirmed that there were “seventy-two lesser apostles.”[3]  Such lists were based on the fact that Jesus “appointed and sent seventy disciples ahead of him,” as described in Luke 10:1.[4] Many, if not most of them would have been among the “five hundred brothers” to whom Jesus appeared following his resurrection from the dead (1 Cor. 15:6).  Based on such texts and various traditions of church fathers, the Eastern Church names the “Apostles of the Seventy” as:

James the Brother of the Lord, Mark and Luke the Evangelists, Cleopas, Symeon, Barnabas, Justus, Thaddeus, Ananias, Stephen the Protomartyr and Archdeacon, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Onesimus, Epaphras, Archippus, Silas, Silvanus, Crescens, Crispus, Epenetus, Andronicus, Stachys, Amplias, Urban, Narcissus, Apelles, Aristobulus, Herodion, Agabus, Rufus, Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobus, Hermas, Linus, Gaius, Philologus, Lucius, Jason, Sosipater, Olympas, Tertius, Erastus, Quartus, Euodias, Onesiphorus, Clement, Sosthenes, Apollos, Tychicus, Epaphroditus, Carpus, Quadratus, Mark called John, Zenas, Aristarchus, Pudens, Trophimus, Mark nephew of Barnabas, Artemas, Aquila, Fortunatus, and Achaicus.[5]

                The point of this list here is not to say that these were the seventy disciples that Jesus sent (ἀπέστειλεν, aposteilen) ahead of him (Luke 10:1) but that church fathers have described other apostles beyond the original twelve.  Such lists were based on the NT, traditions passed down from church fathers, and accounts of early historians.  The fact that such lists include two of the Evangelists—Mark, the companion of Peter, and Luke, the companion of Paul—makes it, at least in principle, difficult to refute.  They were authors of canonical scriptures, the written form of the apostles’ teaching.

Beyond the seventy, the Eastern, Roman, and Protestant branches of the church have identified historically additional missionaries as apostles, giving further evidence of the church’s apostolic nature.  Many of these apostles are:

•Aristobulus, Apostle to the Britons, ca. AD 63 (named among the Apostles of the Seventy)[6]

•Abercius of Hieropolis, d. 167, evangelized Syria and Mesopotamia and considered in the Eastern Church as “Equal to the Apostles”[7]

•Saturninus, Apostle to the Gauls; ca. 257; Fabian sent him to Toulouse[8]

•Nino, Apostle to the Georgians (ca. 296 – ca. 338 or 340); a woman known as St. Nune in Armenia[9]

•Gregory the Illuminator, Apostle to the Armenians, 256–331; credited with converting Armenia from paganism to Christianity[10]

•Frumentius of Axum, Apostle to the Ethiopians, d. 383 [11]

•Patrick, Apostle to Celts of Ireland, 373–463[12]

• Ninian, Apostle to the Southern Picts of Scotland, 360-432[13]

• Remigius, Apostle to the Franks, c. 437 – 533; baptized King Clovis, leading to the conversion of the Frankish people to Nicene Christianity[14]

•Columba, Apostle to the Scots, 521–597[15]

•Augustine of Canterbury, Apostle to the English; Archbishop of Canterbury, 601-605.[16]

•Felix of Burgundy, Apostle to the East Angles; introduced Christianity in eastern England, d. ca. 648[17]

•Kilian, Apostle of Franconia (Bavaria) c. 640 – 689[18]

• Boniface of Devon, Apostle of Germany, 680–755.[19]

•Aidan of Lindsfarne, Apostle to the Northumbrians (North England), 590-651[20]

•Hubertus, Apostle to the Ardennes, 656–727; preached in the dense forests of the Ardennes (Belgium and Luxembourg but stretching into Germany and France)

• Gall of Bangor, Apostle to Switzerland, 550-645[21]

•Willibrord of Northumbria, Apostle to the Frisians (Netherlands), 658–739[22]

•Modestus, Apostle to Carantania, c. 720; evangelized Alpine Slavic people (Austria and north-eastern Slovenia)[23]

•Ansgar, Apostle to the North (Scandinavia), 801–864[24]

•Cyril, 826-869, and Methodius, 815-885, Apostles to the Slavs, considered by the Eastern Church as “Equals-to-the-Apostles”; were missionaries to Bulgaria, Moravia, and Bohemia.[25]

• Anastasius Astric, Apostle to Hungary, 954–1044[26]

•Otto von Bamberg, Apostle to the Pomeranians, 1060–1139; traveled to Stettin on the Baltic Sea.[27]

•Sava, Founder of the Serbian Church (1175 – 1235); considered by the Eastern Church as “Equal to the Apostles.”[28]

•Stephen of Perm, Apostle to the Komi Permyaks (Russia), 1340–1396; rather than imposing Latin or ecclesial Slavonic on the indigenous pagans as contemporary missionaries did, he learned the Perm language and traditions and worked out a distinct writing system.[29]

• Bartolomé de las Casas, Apostle to the West Indies, 1474–1566[30]

• Francis Xavier, Apostle to the Indies (eastern Indonesia) and Japan, 1506–1552; co-founder of the Jesuits[31]

• John Eliot, Apostle to the North America Indians, 1604–1690[32]

•Hans Egede, Apostle to Greenland, 1686-1758[33]

•François Picquet, Apostle to the Iroquois, 1708–1781[34]

• John Williams, Apostle to the South Seas, 1796-1839; worked among the Pacific Islands near Tahiti

•Innocent of Moscow, Apostle of Alaska, 1797–1879[35]

•Cephas Washburn, Apostle to the Cherokees, 1793-1860[36]

•Hudson Taylor, Apostle to China, 1832-1905[37]

•Nicholas Kasatkin, Apostle to Japan (1836 – 1912)[38]

The title of apostle given to these pioneering leaders through the church’s history describes them as gifted by God, sent or commissioned with authority to extend the church to an area without a viable witness to the gospel.  This list is not to establish that they were necessarily all apostles but that the church historically has identified certain people as such. It can be argued that while their work was built on the foundation of Jesus and the original twelve apostles, many had ministries that were at least equal to if not greater in scope or influence for the gospel than the original twelve apostles of Jesus.

Is the “apostolic church” missional?  The traditions of the Eastern, Roman, and Protestant churches argue that it is.  Continued.

[1] Tertullian, De Praescriptione Haereticorum: XXXII, “ex apostolis uel apostolicis uiris, qui tamen cum apostolis perseuerauerit”; “of the apostles or of apostolic men,—a man, moreover, who continued steadfast with the apostles.”
[2] Hippolytus’s list of the Seventy Apostles was regarded dubious, and thus put in the Appendix of his works in the collection of Early Church Fathers.
[3] He changed: “The all-praised ten and twain, leading the seventy-two, their rivals in zeal, were manifested as perfect.”
[4] Some manuscripts say seventy-two.
[5] Hieromonk Leonty Durkit (Transl.). The Lives of the Seventy Apostles. Elkhorn, WV: Orthodox Brotherhood of the Virgin Mary, 1997. There were discrepancies and errors in some lists of the Seventy.  See: Demetrius of Rostov , The Great Collection of the Lives of the Saints, Volume 5: January.
[6] Philip Carrington, The Early Christian Church: Volume 1, The First Christian Church. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
[7] F. G. Holweck, A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints (St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co., 1924).
[8] Richard Travers Smith, The Church in Roman Gaul (London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1882). 111.
[9] Marjory and Oliver Wardrop, The Life of Saint Nino (Piscataway, NJ : Gorgias Press, 2006).
[10] R.G. Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).
[11] Rabenstein, Katherine. “Frumentius of Ethiopia. For All the Saints (Washington, D.C. : Saint Patrick’s Church, 1997).
[12] Philip Freeman, St. Patrick of Ireland: A Biography (Simon & Schuster, 2005)
[13] Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter IV, 271, 273.
[14] A. Hauck, Remigius of Reims, in Philip Schaff, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
[15]  F. A. (Frances Alice) Forbes, Life of Saint Columba Apostle of Scotland (London : R. & T. Washbourne, 1919).
[16] Michael Green, St. Augustine of Canterbury (London: Janus Publ., 1997).
[17] Bede,The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book II (Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1999), chs. 15, 18.
[18] Friedrich Lauchert, “St. Kilian,” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910).
[19] John Cyril Sladden, Boniface of Devon: Apostle of Germany (Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1980).
[20] Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book III (Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1999), ch. 5.
[21] Henry Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. (London, J. Murray, 1911).
[22] Bede, The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation (Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1999).
[23] Michael J. Walsh, A New Dictionary of Saints (London, 2007).
[24] Rimbert and Charles H. Robinson, Anskar, the Apostle of the North, 801-865 (London: Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 1921).
[25] Cyril J Potoček, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Apostles of the Slavs (New York, P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1941).
[26] John McClintock, James Strong, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, Volume 1, 2 New York, Arno Press, 1969; 17-218.
[27] Charles Henry Robinson, ed., The Life of Otto, Apostle of Pomerania, 1060-1139 (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1920).
[28] Velimirović, Nikolaj. The Life of St. Sava (Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1989).
[29] Joshua Fishman, Charles Ferguson, and J. Das Gupta, eds., Language Problems of Developing Nations (New York: Wiley and Sons, 1968): 27–35.
[30] Arthur Helps, The Life of Las Casas, “the Apostle of the Indies” (London: Bell and Daldy, 1868).
[31] Louis F. Hartman, “Saint Francis Xavier, Apostle of the Indies and Japan,” Lives of Saints (New York: John J. Crawley, 1963.)
[32] Martin Moore, The Life and Character of Rev. John Eliot, Apostle of the N.A. Indians (Boston: T. Bedlington, 1822).
[33] Eve Garnett, To Greenland’s Icy Mountains: The Story of Hans Egede, Explorer, Coloniser, Missionary (London: Heinemann, 1968).
[34] Robert Lahaise, “Picquet François,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. IV, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 1979.
[35] Charles R. Hale, Innocent of Moscow, the Apostle of Kamchatka and Alaska (Davenport, IA.: Borcherdt, 1888).
[36] Joyce B. Phillips and Paul Gary Phillips, The Brainerd Journal: A Mission to the Cherokees, 1817-1823 (University of Nebraska Press, 1998).
[37] Ruth Tucker, From Jerusalem to Irian Jaya: A Biographical History of Christian Missions (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983): 173.
[38] Doreen Bartholomew. “Enlightener of Japan, Blessed Nicholas Kasatkin" Orthodox America XII (No. 5-6, Jan-Feb, 1992).